Annals of Colorectal Research Annals of Colorectal Research Ann Colorectal Res http://www.colorectalresearch.com 2322-5262 2322-5289 10.5812/acr. en jalali 2017 6 24 gregorian 2017 6 24 4 4
en 10.17795/acr-43883 Permissive/Protective Interplay of Microbiota with T Cell Adaptive Immune Response in Colon Cancer Permissive/Protective Interplay of Microbiota with T Cell Adaptive Immune Response in Colon Cancer review-article review-article

Colon microbiota, as a complex and diverse population, has been shown to be either pro- or anti-tumorigenic, depending on its content. The composition of microbiota critically determines the differentiation, activation, and expansion of T cells by which pro- or anti-tumorigenic effects of microbes are frequently reported to be mediated. In this review study, we specified an imbalance in microbiota and T cells in particular regulatory T cells and Th17 cells in colon cancer. We also aimed to discuss evidence, suggesting the contribution of microbiota to carcinogenesis or anti-carcinogenesis through influencing T cells.

Colon microbiota, as a complex and diverse population, has been shown to be either pro- or anti-tumorigenic, depending on its content. The composition of microbiota critically determines the differentiation, activation, and expansion of T cells by which pro- or anti-tumorigenic effects of microbes are frequently reported to be mediated. In this review study, we specified an imbalance in microbiota and T cells in particular regulatory T cells and Th17 cells in colon cancer. We also aimed to discuss evidence, suggesting the contribution of microbiota to carcinogenesis or anti-carcinogenesis through influencing T cells.

Colon Cancer;Microbiota;T Cells;Tregs;Th17 Colon Cancer;Microbiota;T Cells;Tregs;Th17 http://www.colorectalresearch.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=43883 Zahra Mojtahedi Zahra Mojtahedi Shiraz Institute for Cancer Research, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran Shiraz Institute for Cancer Research, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran Somayeh Rezaeifard Somayeh Rezaeifard Shiraz Institute for Cancer Research, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran Shiraz Institute for Cancer Research, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran Zahra Faghih Zahra Faghih Shiraz Institute for Cancer Research, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran; PhD, Shiraz Institute for Cancer Research, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. Tel: +98-7132303687, Fax: +98-7132304952 Shiraz Institute for Cancer Research, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran; PhD, Shiraz Institute for Cancer Research, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. Tel: +98-7132303687, Fax: +98-7132304952
en 10.17795/acr-42856 Evaluating the Effect of Melillotus officinalis L. Aqueous Extracts on Healing of Acetic Acid-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Male Rats Evaluating the Effect of <italic>Melillotus officinalis</italic> L. Aqueous Extracts on Healing of Acetic Acid-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Male Rats research-article research-article Conclusions

This study revealed that M. officinalis had apparent curative effects on treating UC because of its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

Results

Treatment with M. officinalis aqueous extract could enhance colonic antioxidant capacity and decrease inflammation and acute colonic injury induced by acetic acid, which is dose-dependent. In addition, administrating the extract significantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced the colonic level of malondialdehyde and myeloperoxidase, and significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased the level of reduced glutathione (P ≤ 0.05). The extract had more effects at the dose of 2000 mg/kg than 1000 mg/kg dosage and prednisolone.

Methods

Fifty rats were randomly divided into five equal groups. Group I (Control healthy group) received 1 mL/kg of normal saline orally. Group II (control colitis group) received 1 mL/kg of normal saline orally. Group III (positive control) received 3 mg/kg prednisolone orally. Group IV received 1000 mg/kg M. officinalis aqueous extracts orally. Group V received 2000 mg/kg M. officinalis aqueous extracts orally. Ulcerative colitis was induced by intra-rectal acetic acid (3% v/v) administration. All treatments were done 24 hours after induction of colitis and continued for seven days. On the eighth day, the rats were sacrificed and colonic biopsies were taken for histopathological and biochemical studies. Data analysis was performed, using SPSS software and significance level was set at P ≤ 0.05.

Background

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that is characterized by acute and chronic inflammation. The etiology and pathophysiology of IBD is unidentified, and there are many obstacles on the definite treatment of this disease. Recently, the useful effects of some herbal medicine on improving UC have been studied. Melillotus officinalis L. (M. officinalis) is an herb with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects used as food, forage and medicine.

Objectives

This study evaluated the antioxidant effects of M. officinalis aqueous extracts in the acetic acid- induced ulcerative colitis in rats.

Conclusions

This study revealed that M. officinalis had apparent curative effects on treating UC because of its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

Results

Treatment with M. officinalis aqueous extract could enhance colonic antioxidant capacity and decrease inflammation and acute colonic injury induced by acetic acid, which is dose-dependent. In addition, administrating the extract significantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced the colonic level of malondialdehyde and myeloperoxidase, and significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased the level of reduced glutathione (P ≤ 0.05). The extract had more effects at the dose of 2000 mg/kg than 1000 mg/kg dosage and prednisolone.

Methods

Fifty rats were randomly divided into five equal groups. Group I (Control healthy group) received 1 mL/kg of normal saline orally. Group II (control colitis group) received 1 mL/kg of normal saline orally. Group III (positive control) received 3 mg/kg prednisolone orally. Group IV received 1000 mg/kg M. officinalis aqueous extracts orally. Group V received 2000 mg/kg M. officinalis aqueous extracts orally. Ulcerative colitis was induced by intra-rectal acetic acid (3% v/v) administration. All treatments were done 24 hours after induction of colitis and continued for seven days. On the eighth day, the rats were sacrificed and colonic biopsies were taken for histopathological and biochemical studies. Data analysis was performed, using SPSS software and significance level was set at P ≤ 0.05.

Background

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that is characterized by acute and chronic inflammation. The etiology and pathophysiology of IBD is unidentified, and there are many obstacles on the definite treatment of this disease. Recently, the useful effects of some herbal medicine on improving UC have been studied. Melillotus officinalis L. (M. officinalis) is an herb with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects used as food, forage and medicine.

Objectives

This study evaluated the antioxidant effects of M. officinalis aqueous extracts in the acetic acid- induced ulcerative colitis in rats.

Inflammatory Bowel Disease;Ulcerative Colitis;Antioxidant;Melillotus officinalis L Inflammatory Bowel Disease;Ulcerative Colitis;Antioxidant;Melillotus officinalis L http://www.colorectalresearch.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=42856 Nader Tanideh Nader Tanideh Colorectal Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Colorectal Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Meghdad Bahrani Meghdad Bahrani Student Research Committee, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Student Research Committee, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Mohammad J. Khoshnood-Mansoorkhani Mohammad J. Khoshnood-Mansoorkhani Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Davood Mehrabani Davood Mehrabani Stem Cells and Transgenic Technology Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Stem Cells and Transgenic Technology Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Donya Firoozi Donya Firoozi School of Nutrition and Food Science, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran; School of Nutrition and Food Science, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-7137251007 School of Nutrition and Food Science, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran; School of Nutrition and Food Science, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran. Tel/Fax: +98-7137251007 Omid Koohi-Hosseinabadi Omid Koohi-Hosseinabadi Center of Experimental and Comparative Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Center of Experimental and Comparative Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Aida Iraji Aida Iraji Central Research Laboratory, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Central Research Laboratory, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran
en 10.17795/acr.25393 Olive Oil and the Treatment of Adhesive Small Bowel Obstruction Olive Oil and the Treatment of Adhesive Small Bowel Obstruction research-article research-article Conclusions

The study results demonstrated that olive is an effective and safe adjunct to the conservative management of small bowel obstruction and markedly reduces the time of resolution of symptoms and length of hospital stay.

Results

The spontaneous resolution time of small bowel obstruction was significantly longer in the control group than the treatment group (59 hours vs. 35 hours). The hospital stay was shorter in the treatment group than the control (three days vs. six days).

Background

Post-operative adhesions are the most common cause of small bowel obstruction. The management of small bowel obstruction is surgical and non-surgical. Some studies are conducted to show the efficacy of non-surgical management of adhesive small bowel obstruction such as sesame oil, water - soluble contrasts such as gastrographin.

Objectives

The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of oral olive oil on the management of adhesive small bowel obstruction.

Methods

All the patients admitted with adhesive bowel obstruction in the hospital affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran, from October 2012 to September 2013 that had inclusion criteria were evaluated by general surgeon. The patients were separated into two groups and standard management was done. Then 12 hours after admission, 150 mL olive oil was given by nasogastric (NG) tube to the first group.

Conclusions

The study results demonstrated that olive is an effective and safe adjunct to the conservative management of small bowel obstruction and markedly reduces the time of resolution of symptoms and length of hospital stay.

Results

The spontaneous resolution time of small bowel obstruction was significantly longer in the control group than the treatment group (59 hours vs. 35 hours). The hospital stay was shorter in the treatment group than the control (three days vs. six days).

Background

Post-operative adhesions are the most common cause of small bowel obstruction. The management of small bowel obstruction is surgical and non-surgical. Some studies are conducted to show the efficacy of non-surgical management of adhesive small bowel obstruction such as sesame oil, water - soluble contrasts such as gastrographin.

Objectives

The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of oral olive oil on the management of adhesive small bowel obstruction.

Methods

All the patients admitted with adhesive bowel obstruction in the hospital affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran, from October 2012 to September 2013 that had inclusion criteria were evaluated by general surgeon. The patients were separated into two groups and standard management was done. Then 12 hours after admission, 150 mL olive oil was given by nasogastric (NG) tube to the first group.

Adhesion;Small Bowel;Olive Oil;Obstruction Adhesion;Small Bowel;Olive Oil;Obstruction http://www.colorectalresearch.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=25393 Leila Ghahramani Leila Ghahramani Colorectal Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran Colorectal Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran Mohammad Hosseini Asl Mohammad Hosseini Asl Colorectal Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran; Biostatistics Department, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran; Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. Tel: +98-7112306972, Fax: +98-7112330724 Colorectal Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran; Biostatistics Department, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran; Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. Tel: +98-7112306972, Fax: +98-7112330724 Mohammad Kazem Hosseini Asl Mohammad Kazem Hosseini Asl Biostatistics Department, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran Biostatistics Department, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran Reza Roshan Ravan Reza Roshan Ravan Colorectal Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran Colorectal Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran Saeedeh Pourahmad Saeedeh Pourahmad Biostatistics Department, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran Biostatistics Department, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran Ahmad Izadpanah Ahmad Izadpanah Colorectal Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran Colorectal Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran Seyed Vahid Hosseini Seyed Vahid Hosseini Colorectal Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran Colorectal Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran Zahra Zabangirfard Zahra Zabangirfard Colorectal Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran Colorectal Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran Fatemeh Enjavi Amiri Fatemeh Enjavi Amiri Colorectal Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran Colorectal Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
en 10.17795/acr-34169 Pouch Salvage Surgery for Treatment of Colitis and Familial Adenomatous Polyposis: Report of Five Cases Pouch Salvage Surgery for Treatment of Colitis and Familial Adenomatous Polyposis: Report of Five Cases case-report case-report Conclusions

After performing pouch salvage operation, pouch function was acceptable in all patients and we could close ileostomies of all of them.

Case Presentation

In this report, five patients were introduced, who underwent pouch salvage surgery after RPC/IPAA surgery failure. Two of the patients were male and three were female and the relevant age range was 16 to 41. Initially, RPC/IPAA surgery was performed on these five patients. Four of the patients underwent RPC/IPAA surgery as a result of ulcerative colitis and, one of the patients as a result of familial adenomatous polyposis. However, due to pouch failure from the RPC/IPAA surgery, pouch-salvage surgery was performed on each of these five patients. Two of the patients underwent pouch-salvage surgery due to infection and pouch fistula, and the other three underwent this surgery due to the remaining rectal stump, anastomosis stenosis and pouch dysfunction. The average time for when pouch-salvage surgery was performed was 3.5 years (three months to five years) after the initial operation and the patients were under follow-up care for two to seven years.

Introduction

The restorative proctocolectomy (RPC) with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) is currently the preferred surgical method for most patients with ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis and sometimes, functional bowel diseases. Infection around the pouch, remaining rectal stump, stricture at anastomosis site, pouch dysfunction and refractory pouchitis can lead to pouch failure. Pouch salvage surgery could prevent pouch failure in some cases.

Conclusions

After performing pouch salvage operation, pouch function was acceptable in all patients and we could close ileostomies of all of them.

Case Presentation

In this report, five patients were introduced, who underwent pouch salvage surgery after RPC/IPAA surgery failure. Two of the patients were male and three were female and the relevant age range was 16 to 41. Initially, RPC/IPAA surgery was performed on these five patients. Four of the patients underwent RPC/IPAA surgery as a result of ulcerative colitis and, one of the patients as a result of familial adenomatous polyposis. However, due to pouch failure from the RPC/IPAA surgery, pouch-salvage surgery was performed on each of these five patients. Two of the patients underwent pouch-salvage surgery due to infection and pouch fistula, and the other three underwent this surgery due to the remaining rectal stump, anastomosis stenosis and pouch dysfunction. The average time for when pouch-salvage surgery was performed was 3.5 years (three months to five years) after the initial operation and the patients were under follow-up care for two to seven years.

Introduction

The restorative proctocolectomy (RPC) with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) is currently the preferred surgical method for most patients with ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis and sometimes, functional bowel diseases. Infection around the pouch, remaining rectal stump, stricture at anastomosis site, pouch dysfunction and refractory pouchitis can lead to pouch failure. Pouch salvage surgery could prevent pouch failure in some cases.

Familial Adenomatous Polyposis;Ilioanal Pouch;Sepsis;Total Proctocolectomy;Ulcerative Colitis Familial Adenomatous Polyposis;Ilioanal Pouch;Sepsis;Total Proctocolectomy;Ulcerative Colitis http://www.colorectalresearch.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=34169 Saeed Derakhshani Saeed Derakhshani Imam Hossein Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Imam Hossein Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Arash Mohammadi Tofigh Arash Mohammadi Tofigh Imam Hossein Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Imam Hossein Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Behzad Nemati Honar Behzad Nemati Honar Imam Hossein Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Imam Hossein Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran Gholamhossein Hayatollah Gholamhossein Hayatollah Imam Hossein Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Imam Hossein Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9127240298 Imam Hossein Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran; Imam Hossein Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9127240298 Maryam Derakhshani Maryam Derakhshani University of British Colombia, Okanagan, BC, Canada University of British Colombia, Okanagan, BC, Canada
en 10.17795/acr-39490 Anal Sphincter Tears During Vaginal Delivery: A New Challenging Problem for the Health System in Iran Anal Sphincter Tears During Vaginal Delivery: A New Challenging Problem for the Health System in Iran letter letter Anal Cancal Laceration;Normal Vaginal Delivery Anal Cancal Laceration;Normal Vaginal Delivery http://www.colorectalresearch.com/index.php?page=article&article_id=39490 Alimohammad Bananzadeh Alimohammad Bananzadeh Department of Surgery, Colorectal and Laparoscopy Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Department of Surgery, Colorectal and Laparoscopy Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran Mohammad Yasin Karami Mohammad Yasin Karami Department of Surgery, Colorectal and Laparoscopy Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran; Student Research Committee, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran; Department of Surgery, Colorectal and Laparoscopy Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9171800710, Fax: +98-7132330724 Department of Surgery, Colorectal and Laparoscopy Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran; Student Research Committee, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran; Department of Surgery, Colorectal and Laparoscopy Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran. Tel: +98-9171800710, Fax: +98-7132330724