Annals of Colorectal Research

Published by: Kowsar

Pilonidal Disease: Review of Recent Literature

Seyed Vahid Hosseini 1 , Mohammad Rezazadehkermani 2 , * , Reza Roshanravan 1 , Khairallah Muzhir Gabash 3 and Mahmoud Aghaie-Afshar 4
Authors Information
1 Colorectal Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran
2 Department of General Surgery, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, IR Iran
3 Department of Surgery, Al-Karama Teaching Hospital, College of Medicine, Wasit University, Kut, Iraq
4 Department of General Surgery, School of Medicine, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, IR Iran
Article information
  • Annals of Colorectal Research: June 30, 2014, 2 (2); e19705
  • Published Online: June 25, 2014
  • Article Type: Review Article
  • Received: April 27, 2014
  • Accepted: May 1, 2014
  • DOI: 10.17795/acr-19705

To Cite: Hosseini S V, Rezazadehkermani M, Roshanravan R, Muzhir Gabash K, Aghaie-Afshar M. Pilonidal Disease: Review of Recent Literature, Ann Colorectal Res. 2014 ; 2(2):e19705. doi: 10.17795/acr-19705.

Abstract
Copyright © 2014, Colorectal Research Center and Health Policy Research Center of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Context
2. Evidence Acquisition
3. Results
4. Conclusions
Acknowledgements
Footnote
References
  • 1. Akbari Sari A, Babashahy S, Olyaeimanesh A, Rashidian A. Estimating the frequency and rate of first 50 common types of invasive procedures in iran healthcare system. Iran J Public Health. 2012; 41(10): 60-4[PubMed]
  • 2. Aysan E, Ilhan M, Bektas H, Kaya EA, Sam B, Buyukpinarbasili N, et al. Prevalence of sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus as a silent disease. Surg Today. 2013; 43(11): 1286-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 3. Fabricius R, Petersen LW, Bertelsen CA. Treatment of pilonidal sinuses in Denmark is not optimal. Dan Med Bull. 2010; 57(12)[PubMed]
  • 4. Arda IS, Guney LH, Sevmis S, Hicsonmez A. High body mass index as a possible risk factor for pilonidal sinus disease in adolescents. World J Surg. 2005; 29(4): 469-71[DOI][PubMed]
  • 5. Balik O, Balik AA, Polat KY, Aydinli B, Kantarci M, Aliagaoglu C, et al. The importance of local subcutaneous fat thickness in pilonidal disease. Dis Colon Rectum. 2006; 49(11): 1755-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 6. Akinci OF, Kurt M, Terzi A, Atak I, Subasi IE, Akbilgic O. Natal cleft deeper in patients with pilonidal sinus: implications for choice of surgical procedure. Dis Colon Rectum. 2009; 52(5): 1000-2[DOI][PubMed]
  • 7. Marzouk DM, Abou-Zeid AA, Antoniou A, Haji A, Benziger H. Sinus excision, release of coccycutaneous attachments and dermal-subcuticular closure (XRD procedure): a novel technique in flattening the natal cleft in pilonidal sinus treatment. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2008; 90(5): 371-6[DOI][PubMed]
  • 8. Bolandparvaz S, Moghadam Dizaj P, Salahi R, Paydar S, Bananzadeh M, Abbasi HR, et al. Evaluation of the risk factors of pilonidal sinus: a single center experience. Turk J Gastroenterol. 2012; 23(5): 535-7[PubMed]
  • 9. Harlak A, Mentes O, Kilic S, Coskun K, Duman K, Yilmaz F. Sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease: analysis of previously proposed risk factors. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2010; 65(2): 125-31[DOI][PubMed]
  • 10. Doll D, Matevossian E, Wietelmann K, Evers T, Kriner M, Petersen S. Family history of pilonidal sinus predisposes to earlier onset of disease and a 50% long-term recurrence rate. Dis Colon Rectum. 2009; 52(9): 1610-5[DOI][PubMed]
  • 11. Binnebosel M, Junge K, Schwab R, Antony A, Schumpelick V, Klinge U. Delayed wound healing in sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus coincides with an altered collagen composition. World J Surg. 2009; 33(1): 130-6[DOI][PubMed]
  • 12. Doll D, Friederichs J, Dettmann H, Boulesteix AL, Duesel W, Petersen S. Time and rate of sinus formation in pilonidal sinus disease. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2008; 23(4): 359-64[DOI][PubMed]
  • 13. Terzi C, Canda AE, Unek T, Dalgic E, Fuzun M. What is the role of mechanical bowel preparation in patients with pilonidal sinus undergoing surgery? Prospective, randomized, surgeon-blinded trial. World J Surg. 2005; 29(11): 1465-71[DOI][PubMed]
  • 14. Mentes O, Oysul A, Harlak A, Zeybek N, Kozak O, Tufan T. Ultrasonography accurately evaluates the dimension and shape of the pilonidal sinus. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2009; 64(3): 189-92[PubMed]
  • 15. Naja MZ, Ziade MF, El Rajab M. Sacrococcygeal local anaesthesia versus general anaesthesia for pilonidal sinus surgery: a prospective randomised trial. Anaesthesia. 2003; 58(10): 1007-12[PubMed]
  • 16. Khalil PN, Brand D, Siebeck M, Hallfeldt K, Mutschler W, Kanz KG. Aspiration and injection-based technique for incision and drainage of a sacrococcygeal pilonidal abscess. J Emerg Med. 2009; 36(1): 60-3[DOI][PubMed]
  • 17. Sungurtekin H, Sungurtekin U, Erdem E. Local anesthesia and midazolam versus spinal anesthesia in ambulatory pilonidal surgery. J Clin Anesth. 2003; 15(3): 201-5[PubMed]
  • 18. Al-Khamis A, McCallum I, King PM, Bruce J. Healing by primary versus secondary intention after surgical treatment for pilonidal sinus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010; (1)[DOI][PubMed]
  • 19. Webb PM, Wysocki AP. Does pilonidal abscess heal quicker with off-midline incision and drainage? Tech Coloproctol. 2011; 15(2): 179-83[DOI][PubMed]
  • 20. McCallum IJ, King PM, Bruce J. Healing by primary closure versus open healing after surgery for pilonidal sinus: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2008; 336(7649): 868-71[DOI][PubMed]
  • 21. Kepenekci I, Demirkan A, Celasin H, Gecim IE. Unroofing and curettage for the treatment of acute and chronic pilonidal disease. World J Surg. 2010; 34(1): 153-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 22. Vahedian J, Nabavizadeh F, Nakhaee N, Vahedian M, Sadeghpour A. Comparison between drainage and curettage in the treatment of acute pilonidal abscess. Saudi Med J. 2005; 26(4): 553-5[PubMed]
  • 23. Aysan E, Basak F, Kinaci E, Sevinc M. Efficacy of local adrenalin injection during sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus excision. Eur Surg Res. 2004; 36(4): 256-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 24. Parlakgumus A, Ezer A, Caliskan K, Emeksiz S, Karakaya J, Colakoglu T, et al. Effects of a tissue sealing-cutting device versus monopolar electrocautery on early pilonidal wound healing: a prospective randomized controlled trial. Dis Colon Rectum. 2011; 54(9): 1155-61[DOI][PubMed]
  • 25. Duxbury MS, Blake SM, Dashfield A, Lambert AW. A randomised trial of knife versus diathermy in pilonidal disease. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2003; 85(6): 405-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 26. Abbasi HR, Hosseini SV, Yarmohammadi H, Bolandparvaz S. Comparison between two methods of excision and primary closure of pilonidal sinus. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2007; 9(3): 143-6
  • 27. Yigit T, Yigitler C, Gulec B, Ihsan UA, Ozer T, Oner K. Do we need to use subcutaneous suture for pilonidal sinus treated with excision and simple primary closure? Acta Chir Belg. 2005; 105(6): 635-8[PubMed]
  • 28. Milone M, Di Minno MN, Musella M, Maietta P, Ambrosino P, Pisapia A, et al. The role of drainage after excision and primary closure of pilonidal sinus: a meta-analysis. Tech Coloproctol. 2013; 17(6): 625-30[DOI][PubMed]
  • 29. Spyridakis M, Christodoulidis G, Chatzitheofilou C, Symeonidis D, Tepetes K. The role of the platelet-rich plasma in accelerating the wound-healing process and recovery in patients being operated for pilonidal sinus disease: preliminary results. World J Surg. 2009; 33(8): 1764-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 30. Reboa G, Gipponi M, Testa T, Giannini G, Scala M, Dalla Costa R, et al. Regenerative medicine for the definitive surgical repair of pilonidal sinus. A new method of wound reconstruction. In Vivo. 2007; 21(3): 529-34[PubMed]
  • 31. Gipponi M, Reboa G, Testa T, Giannini G, Strada P. Tension-free primary closure with autologous platelet gel versus Vivostat- for the definitive treatment of chronic sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease. In Vivo. 2010; 24(4): 583-9[PubMed]
  • 32. Othman I. Skin glue improves outcome after excision and primary closure of sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease. Indian J Surg. 2010; 72(6): 470-4[DOI][PubMed]
  • 33. Altinli E, Koksal N, Onur E, Celik A, Sumer A. Impact of fibrin sealant on Limberg flap technique: results of a randomized controlled trial. Tech Coloproctol. 2007; 11(1): 22-5[DOI][PubMed]
  • 34. Greenberg R, Kashtan H, Skornik Y, Werbin N. Treatment of pilonidal sinus disease using fibrin glue as a sealant. Tech Coloproctol. 2004; 8(2): 95-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 35. Banasiewicz T, Bobkiewicz A, Borejsza-Wysocki M. Portable VAC therapy improve the results of the treatment of the pilonidal sinus - randomized prospective study. Pol Przegl Chir. 2013; 85(7): 371-6[DOI][PubMed]
  • 36. Farrell D, Murphy S. Negative pressure wound therapy for recurrent pilonidal disease: a review of the literature. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2011; 38(4): 373-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 37. Patel KG, Sykes JM. Concepts in local flap design and classification. Oper Tech Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2011; 22(1): 13-23[DOI]
  • 38. Dalenback J, Magnusson O, Wedel N, Rimback G. Prospective follow-up after ambulatory plain midline excision of pilonidal sinus and primary suture under local anaesthesia--efficient, sufficient, and persistent. Colorectal Dis. 2004; 6(6): 488-93[DOI][PubMed]
  • 39. Cihan A, Mentes BB, Tatlicioglu E, Ozmen S, Leventoglu S, Ucan BH. Modified Limberg flap reconstruction compares favourably with primary repair for pilonidal sinus surgery. ANZ J Surg. 2004; 74(4): 238-42[DOI][PubMed]
  • 40. Ciccolo A, Rossitto M, Panacea D, Manfre A, Buonamonte S, Ardizzone A. Treatment of pilonidal disease in short-stay surgery: personal method. Ann Ital Chir. 2004; 75(5): 603-5[PubMed]
  • 41. Al-Naami MY. Outpatient pilonidal sinotomy complemented with good wound and surrounding skin care. Saudi Med J. 2005; 26(2): 285-8[PubMed]
  • 42. Akca T, Colak T, Ustunsoy B, Kanik A, Aydin S. Randomized clinical trial comparing primary closure with the Limberg flap in the treatment of primary sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease. Br J Surg. 2005; 92(9): 1081-4[DOI][PubMed]
  • 43. Ertan T, Koc M, Gocmen E, Aslar AK, Keskek M, Kilic M. Does technique alter quality of life after pilonidal sinus surgery? Am J Surg. 2005; 190(3): 388-92[DOI][PubMed]
  • 44. Gencosmanoglu R, Inceoglu R. Modified lay-open (incision, curettage, partial lateral wall excision and marsupialization) versus total excision with primary closure in the treatment of chronic sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus: a prospective, randomized clinical trial with a complete two-year follow-up. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2005; 20(5): 415-22[DOI][PubMed]
  • 45. Kareem TS. Surgical treatment of chronic sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus. Open method versus primary closure. Saudi Med J. 2006; 27(10): 1534-7[PubMed]
  • 46. Hosseini SV, Bananzadeh AM, Rivaz M, Sabet B, Mosallae M, Pourahmad S, et al. The comparison between drainage, delayed excision and primary closure with excision and secondary healing in management of pilonidal abscess. Int J Surg. 2006; 4(4): 228-31[DOI][PubMed]
  • 47. Ersoy OF, Karaca S, Kayaoglu HA, Ozkan N, Celik A, Ozum T. Comparison of different surgical options in the treatment of pilonidal disease: retrospective analysis of 175 patients. Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 2007; 23(2): 67-70[DOI][PubMed]
  • 48. Al-Salamah SM, Hussain MI, Mirza SM. Excision with or without primary closure for pilonidal sinus disease. J Pak Med Assoc. 2007; 57(8): 388-91[PubMed]
  • 49. Toccaceli S, Persico Stella L, Diana M, Dandolo R, Negro P. Treatment of pilonidal sinus with primary closure. A twenty-year experience. Chir Ital. 2008; 60(3): 433-8[PubMed]
  • 50. Tocchi A, Mazzoni G, Bononi M, Fornasari V, Miccini M, Drumo A, et al. Outcome of chronic pilonidal disease treatment after ambulatory plain midline excision and primary suture. Am J Surg. 2008; 196(1): 28-33[DOI][PubMed]
  • 51. Karakayali F, Karagulle E, Karabulut Z, Oksuz E, Moray G, Haberal M. Unroofing and marsupialization vs. rhomboid excision and Limberg flap in pilonidal disease: a prospective, randomized, clinical trial. Dis Colon Rectum. 2009; 52(3): 496-502[DOI][PubMed]
  • 52. Hossini SV, Aghebati M, Rezaianzadeh A. Comparison of the Rhomboid Fasciocutaneous Transposition Flap with Primary Simple Closure in the Treatment of Uncomplicated Pilonidal Disease. Middle East J Dig Dis. 2011; 1(2): 80-3
  • 53. Nordon IM, Senapati A, Cripps NP. A prospective randomized controlled trial of simple Bascom's technique versus Bascom's cleft closure for the treatment of chronic pilonidal disease. Am J Surg. 2009; 197(2): 189-92[DOI][PubMed]
  • 54. Can MF, Sevinc MM, Yilmaz M. Comparison of Karydakis flap reconstruction versus primary midline closure in sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease: results of 200 military service members. Surg Today. 2009; 39(7): 580-6[DOI][PubMed]
  • 55. Nursal TZ, Ezer A, Caliskan K, Torer N, Belli S, Moray G. Prospective randomized controlled trial comparing V-Y advancement flap with primary suture methods in pilonidal disease. Am J Surg. 2010; 199(2): 170-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 56. Muzi MG, Milito G, Cadeddu F, Nigro C, Andreoli F, Amabile D, et al. Randomized comparison of Limberg flap versus modified primary closure for the treatment of pilonidal disease. Am J Surg. 2010; 200(1): 9-14[DOI][PubMed]
  • 57. Lorant T, Ribbe I, Mahteme H, Gustafsson UM, Graf W. Sinus excision and primary closure versus laying open in pilonidal disease: a prospective randomized trial. Dis Colon Rectum. 2011; 54(3): 300-5[DOI][PubMed]
  • 58. Sakr MF, Ramadan MA, Hamed HM, Kantoush HE. Secondary Healing versus Delayed Excision and Direct Closure after Incision and Drainage of Acute Pilonidal Abscess: A Controlled Randomized Trial. Arch Clin Exp Surg. 2012; 1(1): 8-13[DOI]
  • 59. Dass TA, Zaz M, Rather A, Bari S. Elliptical excision with midline primary closure versus rhomboid excision with limberg flap reconstruction in sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease: a prospective, randomized study. Indian J Surg. 2012; 74(4): 305-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 60. Muller K, Marti L, Tarantino I, Jayne DG, Wolff K, Hetzer FH. Prospective analysis of cosmesis, morbidity, and patient satisfaction following Limberg flap for the treatment of sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus. Dis Colon Rectum. 2011; 54(4): 487-94[DOI][PubMed]
  • 61. Eryilmaz R, Sahin M, Alimoglu O, Dasiran F. Surgical treatment of sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus with the Limberg transposition flap. Surgery. 2003; 134(5): 745-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 62. Mentes O, Bagci M, Bilgin T, Ozgul O, Ozdemir M. Limberg flap procedure for pilonidal sinus disease: results of 353 patients. Langenbecks Arch Surg. 2008; 393(2): 185-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 63. Akin M, Gokbayir H, Kilic K, Topgul K, Ozdemir E, Ferahkose Z. Rhomboid excision and Limberg flap for managing pilonidal sinus: long-term results in 411 patients. Colorectal Dis. 2008; 10(9): 945-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 64. Daphan C, Tekelioglu MH, Sayilgan C. Limberg flap repair for pilonidal sinus disease. Dis Colon Rectum. 2004; 47(2): 233-7[PubMed]
  • 65. Lieto E, Castellano P, Pinto M, Zamboli A, Pignatelli C, Galizia G. Dufourmentel rhomboid flap in the radical treatment of primary and recurrent sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease. Dis Colon Rectum. 2010; 53(7): 1061-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 66. Arumugam PJ, Chandrasekaran TV, Morgan AR, Beynon J, Carr ND. The rhomboid flap for pilonidal disease. Colorectal Dis. 2003; 5(3): 218-21[PubMed]
  • 67. Tezel E, Bostanci H, Anadol AZ, Kurukahvecioglu O. Cleft lift procedure for sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease. Dis Colon Rectum. 2009; 52(1): 135-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 68. Bascom J, Bascom T. Utility of the cleft lift procedure in refractory pilonidal disease. Am J Surg. 2007; 193(5): 606-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 69. Keshava A, Young CJ, Rickard MJ, Sinclair G. Karydakis flap repair for sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus disease: how important is technique? ANZ J Surg. 2007; 77(3): 181-3[DOI][PubMed]
  • 70. Yildiz MK, Ozkan E, Odabasi HM, Kaya B, Eris C, Abuoglu HH, et al. Karydakis flap procedure in patients with sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus disease: experience of a single centre in Istanbul. ScientificWorldJournal. 2013; 2013: 807027[DOI][PubMed]
  • 71. Krand O, Yalt T, Berber I, Kara VM, Tellioglu G. Management of pilonidal sinus disease with oblique excision and bilateral gluteus maximus fascia advancing flap: result of 278 patients. Dis Colon Rectum. 2009; 52(6): 1172-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 72. Eryilmaz R, Okan I, Coskun A, Bas G, Sahin M. Surgical treatment of complicated pilonidal sinus with a fasciocutaneous V-Y advancement flap. Dis Colon Rectum. 2009; 52(12): 2036-40[DOI][PubMed]
  • 73. Ekci B, Gokce O. A new flap technique to treat pilonidal sinus. Tech Coloproctol. 2009; 13(3): 205-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 74. Turan A, Isler C, Bas SC, Genc B, Ozsoy Z. A new flap for reconstruction of pilonidal sinus: lumbar adipofascial turnover flap. Ann Plast Surg. 2007; 58(4): 411-5[DOI][PubMed]
  • 75. Singh R, Pavithran NM. Adipo-fascio-cutaneous flaps in the treatment of pilonidal sinus: experience with 50 cases. Asian J Surg. 2005; 28(3): 198-201[DOI][PubMed]
  • 76. Mahmoud S. Tailoring gluteal flaps in management of complicated and recurrent sacrococcegeal pilonidal disease. Egypt J Surg. 2006; 25(2): 85-90
  • 77. Nessar G, Kayaalp C, Seven C. Elliptical rotation flap for pilonidal sinus. Am J Surg. 2004; 187(2): 300-3[DOI][PubMed]
  • 78. Acarturk TO, Parsak CK, Sakman G, Demircan O. Superior gluteal artery perforator flap in the reconstruction of pilonidal sinus. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2010; 63(1): 133-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 79. Basterzi Y, Canbaz H, Aksoy A, Sar A, Turkmenoglu MO, Caglkulekci M. Reconstruction of extensive pilonidal sinus defects with the use of S-GAP flaps. Ann Plast Surg. 2008; 61(2): 197-200[DOI][PubMed]
  • 80. Sharma PP. Multiple Z-plasty in pilonidal sinus--a new technique under local anesthesia. World J Surg. 2006; 30(12): 2261-5[DOI][PubMed]
  • 81. Lasheen AE, Saad K, Raslan M. Crossed triangular flaps technique for surgical treatment of chronic pilonidal sinus disease. Arch Surg. 2008; 143(5): 503-5[DOI][PubMed]
  • 82. Unalp HR, Derici H, Kamer E, Nazli O, Onal MA. Lower recurrence rate for Limberg vs. V-Y flap for pilonidal sinus. Dis Colon Rectum. 2007; 50(9): 1436-44[DOI][PubMed]
  • 83. Ersoy E, Devay AO, Aktimur R, Doganay B, Ozdogan M, Gundogdu RH. Comparison of the short-term results after Limberg and Karydakis procedures for pilonidal disease: randomized prospective analysis of 100 patients. Colorectal Dis. 2009; 11(7): 705-10[DOI][PubMed]
  • 84. Can MF, Sevinc MM, Hancerliogullari O, Yilmaz M, Yagci G. Multicenter prospective randomized trial comparing modified Limberg flap transposition and Karydakis flap reconstruction in patients with sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease. Am J Surg. 2010; 200(3): 318-27[DOI][PubMed]
  • 85. Bessa SS. Comparison of short-term results between the modified Karydakis flap and the modified Limberg flap in the management of pilonidal sinus disease: a randomized controlled study. Dis Colon Rectum. 2013; 56(4): 491-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 86. El-Shaer WM. The modified gluteal sliding plication closure in the treatment of chronic pilonidal sinus. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2010; 25(7): 887-94[DOI][PubMed]
  • 87. Mentes BB, Leventoglu S, Cihan A, Tatlicioglu E, Akin M, Oguz M. Modified Limberg transposition flap for sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus. Surg Today. 2004; 34(5): 419-23[DOI][PubMed]
  • 88. Akin M, Leventoglu S, Mentes BB, Bostanci H, Gokbayir H, Kilic K, et al. Comparison of the classic Limberg flap and modified Limberg flap in the treatment of pilonidal sinus disease: a retrospective analysis of 416 patients. Surg Today. 2010; 40(8): 757-62[DOI][PubMed]
  • 89. Colak T, Turkmenoglu O, Dag A, Akca T, Aydin S. A randomized clinical study evaluating the need for drainage after Limberg flap for pilonidal sinus. J Surg Res. 2010; 158(1): 127-31[DOI][PubMed]
  • 90. Rabie ME, Al Refeidi AA, Al Haizaee A, Hilal S, Al Ajmi H, Al Amri AA. Sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease: sinotomy versus excisional surgery, a retrospective study. ANZ J Surg. 2007; 77(3): 177-80[DOI][PubMed]
  • 91. Colov EP, Bertelsen CA. Short convalescence and minimal pain after out-patient Bascom's pit-pick operation. Dan Med Bull. 2011; 58(12)[PubMed]
  • 92. Gupta PJ. A randomized study between excision and marsupialization and radiofrequency sinus excision in sacro-coccygeal pilonidal disease. Curr Surg. 2004; 61(3): 307-12[DOI][PubMed]
  • 93. Rao AC. Cutting seton for pilonidal disease: a new approach. Tech Coloproctol. 2006; 10(3): 242-4[DOI][PubMed]
  • 94. Meinero P, Mori L, Gasloli G. Endoscopic pilonidal sinus treatment (E.P.Si.T.). Tech Coloproctol. 2014; 18(4): 389-92[DOI][PubMed]
  • 95. Chaudhuri A, Bekdash BA, Taylor AL. Single-dose metronidazole vs 5-day multi-drug antibiotic regimen in excision of pilonidal sinuses with primary closure: a prospective, randomized, double-blinded pilot study. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2006; 21(7): 688-92[DOI][PubMed]
  • 96. Mavros MN, Mitsikostas PK, Alexiou VG, Peppas G, Falagas ME. Antimicrobials as an adjunct to pilonidal disease surgery: a systematic review of the literature. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2013; 32(7): 851-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 97. el-Khadrawy O, Hashish M, Ismail K, Shalaby H. Outcome of the rhomboid flap for recurrent pilonidal disease. World J Surg. 2009; 33(5): 1064-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 98. Sakr M, El-Hammadi H, Moussa M, Arafa S, Rasheed M. The effect of obesity on the results of Karydakis technique for the management of chronic pilonidal sinus. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2003; 18(1): 36-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 99. Sakcak I, Avsar FM, Cosgun E. Comparison of the application of low concentration and 80% phenol solution in pilonidal sinus disease. JRSM Short Rep. 2010; 1(1): 5[DOI][PubMed]
  • 100. Aygen E, Arslan K, Dogru O, Basbug M, Camci C. Crystallized phenol in nonoperative treatment of previously operated, recurrent pilonidal disease. Dis Colon Rectum. 2010; 53(6): 932-5[DOI][PubMed]
  • 101. Kaymakcioglu N, Yagci G, Simsek A, Unlu A, Tekin OF, Cetiner S, et al. Treatment of pilonidal sinus by phenol application and factors affecting the recurrence. Tech Coloproctol. 2005; 9(1): 21-4[DOI][PubMed]
  • 102. Tekin A. A simple modification with the Limberg flap for chronic pilonidal disease. Surgery. 2005; 138(5): 951-3[DOI][PubMed]
  • 103. Conroy FJ, Kandamany N, Mahaffey PJ. Laser depilation and hygiene: preventing recurrent pilonidal sinus disease. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2008; 61(9): 1069-72[DOI][PubMed]
  • 104. Yeo MS, Shim TW, Cheong WK, Leong AP, Lee SJ. Simultaneous laser depilation and perforator-based fasciocutaneous limberg flap for pilonidal sinus reconstruction. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2010; 63(11)-800[DOI][PubMed]
  • 105. Oram Y, Kahraman F, Karincaoglu Y, Koyuncu E. Evaluation of 60 patients with pilonidal sinus treated with laser epilation after surgery. Dermatol Surg. 2010; 36(1): 88-91[DOI][PubMed]
  • 106. Petersen S, Wietelmann K, Evers T, Huser N, Matevossian E, Doll D. Long-term effects of postoperative razor epilation in pilonidal sinus disease. Dis Colon Rectum. 2009; 52(1): 131-4[DOI][PubMed]
  • 107. Sievert H, Evers T, Matevossian E, Hoenemann C, Hoffmann S, Doll D. The influence of lifestyle (smoking and body mass index) on wound healing and long-term recurrence rate in 534 primary pilonidal sinus patients. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2013; 28(11): 1555-62[DOI][PubMed]
  • 108. Doll D, Novotny A, Rothe R, Kristiansen JE, Wietelmann K, Boulesteix AL, et al. Methylene Blue halves the long-term recurrence rate in acute pilonidal sinus disease. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2008; 23(2): 181-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 109. Onder A, Girgin S, Kapan M, Toker M, Arikanoglu Z, Palanci Y, et al. Pilonidal sinus disease: risk factors for postoperative complications and recurrence. Int Surg. 2012; 97(3): 224-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 110. Kayaalp C, Olmez A, Aydin C, Piskin T. Tumescent local anesthesia for excision and flap procedures in treatment of pilonidal disease. Dis Colon Rectum. 2009; 52(10): 1780-3[DOI][PubMed]
  • 111. Al-Khayat H, Al-Khayat H, Sadeq A, Groof A, Haider HH, Hayati H, et al. Risk factors for wound complication in pilonidal sinus procedures. J Am Coll Surg. 2007; 205(3): 439-44[DOI][PubMed]
  • 112. Alptekin H, Yilmaz H, Kayis SA, Sahin M. Volume of the excised specimen and prediction of surgical site infection in pilonidal sinus procedures (surgical site infection after pilonidal sinus surgery). Surg Today. 2013; 43(12): 1365-70[DOI][PubMed]
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:

Author(s):

Article(s):

Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments